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Elsevier Science

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989 Mar 15;13(4):941-50. doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(89)90240-4.

Extracellular potassium ion dynamics and ventricular arrhythmias in the canine heart.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

A Pelleg, H Mitamura, R Price, E Kaplinsky, H Menduke, L S Dreifus, E L Michelson


  1. Lankenau Medical Research Center, Cardiovascular Division, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

PMID: 2926046 DOI: 10.1016/0735-1097(89)90240-4
Free Article


The relation between extracellular potassium ion activity [( K+]o) and ventricular tachyarrhythmias was studied in an open chest canine model with the use of two protocols. In Protocol I, potassium chloride was administered into the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at a rate of 0.125 mEq/min for either 20 min or until [K+]o = 20 mEq/liter, whichever came first. In Protocol II, the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in one step and was reperfused 20 min later. Fifteen dogs were subjected to Protocol I, nine of which were also subjected to Protocol II. In the latter group, a recovery period of greater than or equal to 1 h separated the two protocols. Local K+ and intramyocardial activities were recorded with use of bifunctional ion-sensitive plunge electrodes at multiple sites located in the region of the left ventricle perfused by the left anterior descending artery and at one site outside of this region. The following variables were recorded and analyzed: Lead II electrocardiogram, heart rate, systemic arterial blood pressure, local [K+]o and its time derivative (dK+/dt), local electrograms and ventricular arrhythmias. Maximal [K+]o and dK+/dt were 23 +/- 3 mEq/liter and 9 +/- 1 mEq/liter per min in Protocol I and 14 +/- 1 mEq/liter and 3 +/- 1 mEq/liter per min in Protocol II, respectively. In both protocols, the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias correlated with [K+]o (p less than 0.02) as well as with dK+/dt (p less than 0.05). Ventricular arrhythmias were more frequent and more severe in Protocol II than in Protocol I (p less than 0.05). Therefore, whereas K+ dynamics were more pronounced in Protocol I, ventricular arrhythmias were more severe in Protocol II. This occurrence was apparently due, at least in part, to less heterogeneous changes in K+ gradients during constant K+ infusion. It was concluded that, in addition to the magnitude of [K+]o, the rate of change of this variable (that is, dK+/dt) apparently plays an important role in the genesis of ischemic ventricular arrhythmias.

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