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Emergencias. 2019 Dic;31(6):391-398.

Immersive simulation training at 6-week intervals for 1 year and multidisciplinary team performance scores: a randomized controlled trial of simulation training for life-threatening pediatric emergencies.

Emergencias : revista de la Sociedad Espanola de Medicina de Emergencias

[Article in Spanish]
Daniel Aiham Ghazali, Emmanuelle Fournier, Cyril Breque, Stéphanie Pharmad Ragot, Denis Oriot


  1. Emergency Department and Emergency Medical Service, University Hospital of Bichat, París, Francia. Ilumens, Simulation Center, University of Paris-Diderot, París, Francia.
  2. Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology Unit, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Francia.
  3. ABS Lab, Simulation Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Poitiers, Francia.
  4. Statistical Department and Clinical Investigation Center (CIC 1402), INSERM (French National Health and Medical Research Institute), University Hospital of Poitiers, Francia.
  5. ABS Lab, Simulation Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Poitiers, Francia. Pediatric Emergency Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, Francia.

PMID: 31777210


OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate an effect of 1 year of training using immersive simulations repeated every 6 weeks versus every 6 months to improve the performance of multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) working with children in lifethreatening situations.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in 12 MDTs of emergency responders in France. Each MDT consisted of 4 persons: a physician, a resident, a nurse, and the ambulance driver. Six MDTs participated in 9 different high-fidelity simulations of pediatric shock over the course of a year. Six control MDTs were presented with 3 of the experimental group's simulations at 3 time points (starting point, 6 months, and 1 year). Technical performance was assessed with the Team Average Performance Assessment Scale (TAPAS) and an intraosseous (IO) access performance scale. Nontechnical performance assessment instruments were the Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS) and, for leadership, the Behavioral Assessment Tool (BAT). Progress over time was analyzed by comparing the 2 groups during the 3 simulations they experienced in common.

RESULTS: Performance scores rose significantly over the study period in the experimental group (P=.01 for the TAPAS score, P=.008 for IO access, P=.03 for the CTS score, and P=.02 for the BAT score) but did not change in the control group (P=.46 for TAPAS, P=.55 for IO access, P=.62 for CTS, and P=.58 for BAT). All mean (SD) scores were higher in the experimental group than in the control group in the last session: TAPAS, 55.8 ± 6.3 vs 31.2 ± 10.3, P=.01; IO access, 91.7 ± 8.0 vs 62.9 ± 16.2, P=.01; CTS, 63.2 ± 9.3 vs 47.2 ± 13.1, P=.03; and BAT, 72.8 ± 5.1 vs 51.2 ± 14.3, P=.01). The 6-month assessment showed significant between-group differences on 2 technical performance measures (P=.02 for TAPAS and P=.03 for IO access); the experimental group's scores were higher. We also observed close correlations between the performance of the leader and the group on both nontechnical (rho > 0.9) and technical (rho > 0.7) assessments.

CONCLUSION: Simulation-based training should be repeated more than 3 times per year. Our findings suggest the advisability of repeating simulations of infrequent, high-risk scenarios every 6 weeks to improve all performance scores and guarantee acceptable technical and nontechnical performance throughout the year.

Keywords: Rendimiento técnico; Leadership; Liderazgo; Nontechnical performance; Pediatric emergency services; Rendimiento no técnico; Simulación; Simulation; Teamwork; Technical performance; Trabajo en equipo; Urgencias pediátricas

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