United European Gastroenterol J. 2017 Dec;5(8):1073-1081. doi: 10.1177/2050640617722903. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
Human intestinal epithelium in a dish: Current models for research into gastrointestinal pathophysiology.
United European gastroenterology journal
Manuel Noben, Wiebe Vanhove, Kaline Arnauts, Anabela Santo Ramalho, Gert Van Assche, Séverine Vermeire, Catherine Verfaillie, Marc Ferrante
- Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
- Department of Development and Regeneration, Stem Cell Institute Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
- Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
PMCID: PMC5721984 DOI: 10.1177/2050640617722903
Determining the exact pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal diseases remains difficult due to the complex in vivo environment. In this review we give an overview of the available epithelial cell culture systems developed to investigate pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases. Traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) immortalised (tumour) cell lines survive long-term, but are not genetically stable nor represent any human in particular. In contrast, primary cultures are patient unique, but short-lived. Three-dimensional (3D) organoid cultures resemble the crypt-villus domain and contain all cell lineages, are long-lived and genetically stable. Unfortunately, manipulation of the 3D organoid system is more challenging. Combining the 3D and 2D technologies may overcome limitations and offer the formation of monolayers on permeable membranes or flow-chambers. Determining the right model to use will depend on the pathology of interest and the focus of the research, defining which cell types need to be included in the model.
Keywords: 2D cultures; Organoids; epithelial models
- Cell. 2015 Jan 15;160(1-2):299-312 - PubMed
- Nature. 2016 May 04;533(7604):543-546 - PubMed
- Cell. 2015 May 7;161(4):933-45 - PubMed
- Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013 Sep;77(3):380-439 - PubMed
- Gut. 2017 Dec;66(12):2193-2195 - PubMed
- J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 26;287(44):37296-308 - PubMed