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Circ Res. 1991 Aug;69(2):455-65. doi: 10.1161/01.res.69.2.455.

Sympathetic stimulation-evoked overflow of norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y from the heart.

Circulation research

M R Warner, P D Senanayake, C M Ferrario, M N Levy


  1. Indiana University School of Medicine, Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Department of Pharmacology, Indianapolis.

PMID: 1776971 DOI: 10.1161/01.res.69.2.455


Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and norepinephrine are released together on sympathetic activation. To compare the time courses of NPY and norepinephrine washout from cardiac tissues, we measured the overflow of NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) and norepinephrine in coronary sinus blood before, during, and after 3-minute trains of ansae subclaviae stimulation in 13 anesthetized dogs. We also measured vagally induced cardiac cycle length responses before and after ansae stimulation. Ansae stimulation increased NPY-LI and norepinephrine overflow from the heart in a frequency-dependent manner (p less than 0.02). After stimulation of the ansae at 5 and 10 Hz, the peak norepinephrine overflows decayed by 90% within 2 minutes, but the NPY-LI overflows required 17 +/- 11 and 35 +/- 21 minutes, respectively, to decay by 90%. Cardiac vagal effects were inhibited after 5- and 10-Hz ansae stimulations, and the peak inhibitions decayed by 90% after 19 +/- 7 and 39 +/- 16 minutes, respectively. The 90% decay times of the NPY-LI overflows were longer (p less than 0.003) than those of the norepinephrine overflows but did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.4) from the 90% decay times of the inhibition of vagal effects. We characterized NPY-LI in coronary sinus and arterial plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Before ansae stimulation, the main peak of NPY-LI in the plasma had a retention time similar to that of the oxidized human NPY-(1-36) standard. During ansae stimulation, however, there was a substantial increase in the peak of NPY-LI that eluted in a position similar to that of the monoxidized human NPY-(1-36) standard. These data support the hypothesis that neurally released NPY mediates the sympathetically evoked inhibition of vagal effects and indicate that the time course of removal of NPY from the heart differs substantially from that of norepinephrine. Moreover, under basal conditions, most NPY in the circulation is present in the oxidized form or as a fragment of the 36-amino-acid peptide. In contrast, cardiac sympathetic stimulation evokes the overflow of monoxidized NPY-(1-36) into the coronary sinus plasma.

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